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Etymological Table Database.

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The Urheimat of the Nostratic Languages

The Relationship of the Altaic and Turkic languages. Origin and development.



Ancient Anglo-Saxon Place Names.

            The search for place names of Anglo-Saxon origin began at the Anglo-Saxons Urheimat between the rivers Sluch, Pripyat, and Teteriv, and they were quite successful. Subsequently, however, toponyms decrypted by means of English were found also in adjacent areas. In general, they noted the migration routes of the Anglo-Saxons first on the left bank of the Dnieper, and later westward. The Anglo-Saxon place names on the right bank territory were accumulated on a fairly small space that can speak in favor of the presence here of Anglo-Saxons. In contrary any congestion of Anglo-Saxon place names on the left bank of Ukraine outside the Urheimat was not found, and the similarity of some them to Old English words could be accidental. However, convincing examples of Anglo-Saxon place names have been found here.
            Interesting idea concerning this topic was proposed by Ihor Danyliuk, one of the readers of Alternative linguistics. He drew attention to the fact that there are in the Ukraine dozens of place names having a final formant -tyn. At first glance, this formant could be an extension of the possessive suffix -yn, but analogous formant type -nyn, -ryn, -byn, and similar almost never occur in the Ukraine. In this connection, it was suggested that the word tyn as a component of a complex name has its particular meaning. The search for the origin of this word in several languages resulted the most suitable was OE tūn "fence", "field", "yard", "house", "housing", "village", "city" (Eng town). The word has parallels in other Germanic and Celtic languages. Slavic word tyn "fence" was borrowed from some German language in more narrow sense, and therefore could not have been so widely used for place names, although such possibility can not be excluded. For example, the first partial word of place names Kozya-tyn, Krivo-tyn, Pravu-tyn, Lyubo-tyn can have Ukrainian origin. It can be assumed that the word tyn in sense "village" was spread among the multilingual population of Ukraine, as there are examples of the conjuction of this word with a non-Germanic and non-Slavic words. For example, the place-name Zhukotyn explained by Chuv çaka "linden" and this explanation is plausible as there are a lot of lime trees in the village now. However the second partial word of this name has nothing similar in the Chuvash language. Obviously, the component -tyn meaning "village" has also been used but by the Bulgars. The following are examples of names of supposed Anglo-Saxon origin scattered throughout the territory of the right-bank Ukraine.

            The village of (v.) Avratyn of Volochisk district Khmelnytski Region, v. Avratyn of Lubar district Zhytomyr Region – OE ǽfre "after, constant", tūn "village";
            v. Boriatyn (Boratyn) of Sokal district Lviv Region, v. Boriatyn of Lutsk district of Volyn Region – OE bora "son", tūn "village";
            v. Burtyn of Polonne district Khmelnytski Region – OE būr "a peasant", tūn "village";
            the town of (t.) Burshtyn of Halych district Ivano-Frankivsk Region – OE byrst "loss, waste", "damage", "misfortune"; tūn "village";
            t. Delatyn of Nadvirna distryct Ivano-Frankivsk Region – dǽl, dell "valley", tūn "village";
            t. Husiatyn of Ternopil Region, v. Husiatyn of Chemerivtsi district Khmelnytski Region – hyse "a son", "lad", "warrior"; tūn "village";
            v. Maniatyn of Slavuta district Khmelnytski Region – OE manian "to prevent", "to protect"; tūn "village";
            v. Myrotyn of Zdolbuniv district Rivne Region – OE mūr "wall", tūn "village";
            v. Myrutyn of Slavuta district Khmelnytski Region – OE mūr "wall", tūn "village";
            v. Obertyn of Tlumach district Ivano-Frankivsk Region – OE ofer "over", "high"; tūn "village";
            v. Rybotyn of Korop district Chernihiv Region – OE rūwa "cover, covering", tūn "village";
            t. Rohatyn (Rogatyn), a district centre of Ivano-Frankivsk Region – OE ryge "rye", tūn "village";
            v. Rukhotyn of Khotyn district Chernivtsi Region – OE rūh "raw, rough", tūn "village";
            v. Selatyn of Putyla distruct Chernivtsi Region – OE sele"house", "housing", tūn "village";
            v. Skoviatyn of Borshiv district Ternopil Region – OE scuwa "shade", "protection", tūn "village".



            The Urheimat of Anglo-Saxons was located between the rivers Sluč, Prypyat’ and Teteriv (see the map above). At first it was occupied by the ancient Italics (forebears of the Latinians, Oscans and Umbrians), then by the Anglo-Saxons, and subsequently by the ancestors of the Slovaks. In more recent history, this place was inhabited by the Drevljan tribe, whose capital was the fabled Iskorosten. Scribes have clearly tried "to slavicize" the name of this town, now referred to simply as Korosten, which no doubt comes close to the name used during ancient times. The town is located above the river Usha, which meanders along granite banks. Here the English language affords us an opportunity to etymologize the name of the town, using the Cornish care, “rocky ash,” and O.Eng. stàn, “stone, rock.” The root care can also be found in the name of the town of Korostishev, located on the Teteriv’s rocky left bank. If the second part of this toponym derives from O.Eng. sticca, “stick, staff”, the place name can be taken as a whole to mean “ashen stick.” The name of another town is connected to rocks as well: this is Ovruch, located in the Slovečan-Ovruč Hills on the upper left bank of the river Norin’. Eng. of rock may be translated as “on rocks,” as well as “near rocks,” or "rocky”.
            The variant Usha for the river Uzh may actually derive from a more ancient form that was changed by analogy to the name of a well-known reptile. That presumption comes in handy for checking the names of the villages Ushica and Ushomyr on the Ush. Looking for the etymology of “Uša,” we turn up Lat. usio, ùsus, "custom," "use," as well as Eng. use, "use,” "using.” Thus, we cannot exclude the possibility that the river’s name originates from the time of the Italics’ settlement here some five thousand years ago. Noting the similarity in the second part of the toponyms Ushomyr and Zhitomyr, we find O.Eng mære “border,” which F. Holthausen corresponds to Lat. mùrus, "wall" (AEW). While one can easily find Ukrainian roots behind both toponyms, the English etymology is preferable because we find a correlate to the first part of “Zhitomyr” in O.Eng. scytta, "protection." This word is logically near to the word value "border," especially since &Zhitomyr is located at the region’s southern border (see Figure). Whether O.Eng. scytta bears any relation to the Greek name for the Scythians, or merely amounts to a coincidence, remains unclear. Another defensive border extended across the territory of Ushomyr Region right to the approaches of Korosten’, which likely became the capital of the Angles in those ancient times.
            As a whole, we can etymologize nearly fifty local place names by way of the English lexicon. Some of the more interesting and persuasive examples are listed below:

            The village of (v.) Barashi in Yemelchine district of Zhitomyr Region – OE bǽr “abandoned, bare”, ǽsсе “ashes”;
            the river (r.) Berezhest’, the left tribute (lt) of the Gerzla, lt UshaГрезли, lt Uzh – OE bere “barlaey”, OE ciest “heap”. However the name can have Slavic origin;
            v. Bukcha in Belarus, west of Lelchytsi – O.Eng. bucca, "a goat”;
            r. Hresla, lt of the Uzh – OIcl. hrisla (OE hris) "a bush”.
            v.v. Khodory, Khodorkiv and Khodurkiv in Zhitomyr Region – OE. hador, “vigorous, brisk";
            v. Klivyny west of Chornobyl – OE cliewen, "a clew”;
           v. Kyrdany near Ovruč – OE cyrten, "beautiful”;
            r. Latovnia, the right tributary (rt) of the Ten’ka, rt of the Tnia, rt of the Sluch – OE latteow, "leader”;
            The city of (c.) Mozyr’ in Belarus – OE. Maser-feld to N.Gmc. mosurr, "maple" (AEW);
            r Morsivka, rt of the Riznia, lt of the Irsha, lt of the Teteriv – OE mor, plural mors, “dirty;”
            t Narovlia on the right bank of the Pripjat’ – OE nearu “narrow” and wæl, “pool, source”;
            v. Olmany in Belarus, southeast of the town Stolin – OE oll, “to insult, abuse,”mann, manna“a man”, man “fault, sin”;
            v. Prypiat’ – OE frio, "free", frea “lord, god”, pytt, “a hole, pool, source”;
            r. Rikhta, lt of the Trostшanycja, rt of the Irsha – OE riht, ryht, “right, direct”;
            v. Syzany south of the city of Homel’ Region in Belarus – OE. sessian “to grow quiet”;
            r. Zhelon’, rt of the Low Prypiat’ – OE scielian “to part”;
            r. Zherev, lt of the Už, and r Žereva, lt of the Teteriv, rt of the Dnieper – O.Eng. gierwan, "to boil” or "to decorate” (both meanings suit the toponyms, depending on the character of the respective river);
            r. Zerce, west of Olevs’k – OE sierc "shirt".

            The presence of English-based toponyms beyond the eastern and southeastern borders of the ancient Angles’ settlement gives us a basis for theorizing that while migrating from their ancestral homelands, the Germanic people set off in directions other than west. And if the name of the village Harlejivka, similar to Eng. hurley, “hockey stick,” remains a mere curiosity, although the word could have another meaning at old times, the English roots in the name of the river Irpin’ (Old Ukrainian Irpen’) may be taken more seriously. This river has a wide boggy valley, one that should have been boggier in ancient times. This is why earfenn – conflated from O.Eng. ear, meaning 1. "lake" or 2. “ground,” and O.Eng. fenn, “bog, silt,” and taken in this instance to mean “sludgy lake” or “boggy ground” – seems to come very close to a proper etymology for the river Irpen’. The name the ctown Fastov obviously is arisen from OE fǽst “strong, fast". OE swiera “neck”, “ravine, valley” suits for the explanation of the name the village os Skvyra on the river Skvyrka", if k after s is epenthesis, ie inserted sound to give greater expression to the word. In favor of the proposed etymology says the name of the village of Krivosheino formed from Ukrainian words meaning “curved neck” which can be loan transcription of an older name. The village is located on this river bend.
           Other place names of Anglo-Saxon origin in the country west of the Dnieper may be as follows:

            v. Dirdyn near the town Horodishche in Cherkssy Rgion – OE đirda “third”;
            v. Khodorkiv in Zhitomyr Region – OE. hador “vigorous, brisk”.
            v. Kodaky south of the town of Vasylkiv – OE cot(t)uc “mallow” of unclear origin;
            t. Korsun’- of Shevchenko in Cherkassy Region – OE cursian “to weave, plait;
            v.v. Myrcha west of the town Dymer in Kiev Region and south of the town Malin in Zhytomyr Region – OE mearce «граница»;
            t. Yagotyn, the town in Kiev Region – OE iegođ „a little island”.
            t. Smela, the town in Cherkassy Region – the name of the town can have as Slavic as Anglo-Saxon origin. (Eng smile «улыбаться» or smell but best of all taking in consideration the diphthong in the old variant of the name suits OE smiellan “to strike, hit, burst;
            r. Tal rt the Teteriv – OE dǽl “valley”;
            t. Tarashcha, the town in Kiev Region – OE. đār “here, there”, ǽsc “ash-tree”;
            t. Tetiev, the town in Kiev Region – OE. tætan “to gladden, coddle”;

            Place names being explained by means of Old English without of the Anglo-Saxon Urheimat but in the border of the East-Třynec culture which belonged to the Germans affirm the migration of Anglo-Saxons eastward across the Dnieper. Here the exolanation of unclear place names in the basin of the Desns and Seym by means of Old English:
            r. Brech, lt. of the Snov, rt. of the Desna – OE brec “sound, noise”;
            c. Bryansk – OE bryne „fire”;
            t. Buryn’ in Sumy Region – OE burna “spring, source”;
            v. Byrlovka in Drabiv district of Cherkassy Region. – OE byrla „body”;
            t. Černiğiv (Černigov) – OE ciern “cream, ” “cow” (I.-E. guou);
            t. Dykanka in Poltava Region – OE đicce “tick”, anga „thorn, edge”;
            the city of Homel in Belorussia – OE humele „bryonia”, hymele "hop, hops";
            t. Ichnia in Chernihiv Region – OE eacnian „to add”;
            vv. Ivot to the east of the town Novhorod-Siverski and in the north of Bryansk Region in Russia, rivers Ivotka, Ivotok – OE ea "river", wœt "fury";
            v. Khvastovichi in south of Kaluga Region in Russia – OE fǽst “strong, fast" and ǽw "law, custom";
            r. Kleven', pt. of the Seym – OE cliewen “a clew”;
            r. Nerussa, lt. of the Desna – OE neru “nourishment”, usse „our”;
            v. Pakul to west of Chernihiv – OE pǽc-an „to deceive”, OE oll „quarrel”;
            r. Resseta rt of the Zhizdra, lt of the Oka – OE rǽs "running" (from rǽsan "to race, hurry") or rīsan "to rise" and seađ "spring, source";
            t. Romodan in Myrhorod district of Poltava Region – OE rūma „space”, OE dān „humid, humid place”;
            t. Romny in Sumy Region – OE romian “to seek, aim”.
            t. Senkiv in Poltava district – OE sencan “to dip, sink”.
            r. Svessa, lt. of the Ivotka, lt. of the Desna, the town of Svessa in Sumy district – OE swǽs “peculiar, pleasant, beloved”.
            r. Sviga, lt, of the Desna – OE swigian “to be silent”.
            r. Sev, lt. of the Nerussa, lt. of the Desna – OE seaw “sap, moisture”.
            r. Seym, lt. of the Desna – OE seam "side, seam".
            r. Smiach, rt. of the Snov, rt. of the Desna – OE smieć “smoke, steam”.
            r. Sozh, lt. of the Dnepr – OE socian “to boil”.
            t. Sugia on r. Sugia, lt Psel – OE suggasparrow”;
            r. Ul, lt. of the Sev, lt. of Nerussa, lt. of the Desna – OE ule “owl”.
            r. Volfa, lt. of the Seym – OE wulf “wolf”.
            r. Vytebet', lt of the Zhyzdra, rt of the Oka – OE wid(e) "wide", bedd "bed, river-bed".

           The list of the place names of the Anglo-Saxon origin while further research is complemented and corrected, what requires a permanent correcting illustrative maps and it's pretty hard work which also harm the quality of cards. In this regard, the new additions and removal of random coincidences will be placed in the system Google Map (see below)




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