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Genesis of Scythian Culture

            Tracing the genesis of the Scythian culture, we will have in mind that there is no dispute about the cultural continuity from the Fore-Scythian to the Scythian period in the Ukrainian Forest-steppe, what B. Rybakov was already noted. He asserted that all Forest-steppe agricultural cultures of Scythian period come from local agricultural cultures of Fore-Scythian time (RYBAKOV B.A. 1979: 142). It seems strange that sites of Early Scythian time are located just in the Forest-steppe, while they have not yet been found in the steppe. In this regard, Fore-Scythian culture of Ukraine require careful consideration.
            Ukrainian archaeologists distinguish such For-Scythian cultures in the Ukraine: (1) Cimmerian culture in the steppe, (2) Chornolis culture in the forest-steppe of the Right-side Ukraine, (3) the culture of Thracian Halstatt in Moldova and Middle Dnestr land, (4) Vysotska culture in two modern-day districts of the West Ukraine, and (5) Luzhitska in the extreme western rand of the Ukraine (TERENOZHKIN A.I., Ed., 1971: 8). The last culture occupied only very little area and had not great influence on the cultural process in the Ukraine at that time. Cimmerian culture is represented only by some entombments in the steppe. Vysotska culture and culture of Thracian Halstatt are peripheral. Thus, we will pay more attention to Chornolis culture.

At right: Archaeological Cultures of For-Scythian Time in the Ukraine       

            І. Cimmerian sites: 1. Dnieproprudnyi. 4. Mala Tsymbalka. 5. Nikopol. 8. Parkany. 9. Petrovo-Svystunovo.
ІІ. Vysotska culture: 1. Vysotske. 2. Honcharivka (Belzets). 3. Zolochiv. 4. Krasne. 5. Loshniv.
6. Luhove (Chekhy). 7. Nedilivske. 8. Ternopil. 9. Ulvovek. 10. Yaseniv.
ІІІ. Holihrady group: 1. Holihrady. 2. Hrushky. 3. Ivane-Zolote. 4. Mahala. 5. Mykhalkiv. 6. Novosilka Kostiukova.
ІV. Moldovian group: 1. Chișinău. 2. Lukashivka. 3. Şoldăneşti.
V. Chornolis culture: 1. Adamivna. 2. Bobrytsia. 3. Bortnychi. 4. Boyarka. 5. Butenky. 6. Velyka Andrusivka.
7. Veremia. 8. Voroshiliv. 9. Holoviatyno. 10. HUlay-horod. 11. Zalyvky. 12. Kalantayiv. 13. Kaniv (Sytnyky).
14. Kiev. 15. Kyilov. 16. Kolomyishchyna. 17. Lubentsi. 18. Mankivka. 19. Muklashi.
20. Molodetske. 21. Moskovska hora. 22. Nytsakha. 23. Nosachiv. 24. Pidhirtsi. 26. Poludnivka. 27. Sokyrne.
28. Subotiv. 29. Tenetynka. 30. Tiasmyna. 31. Uman'. 32. Khreshchatyk. 33. Khokhitva. 34. Khukhra. 35. Chornyi lis. 36. Yanytske.

            Chornolis culture has some specific features which connect it with Vysotska culture, what L Krushelnytska has repeatedly been pointed out in her writings (see. KRUSHELNYTSKA L.I. 1998). Sufficient proofs for tese relations can be found in following.
            It is believed that Vysotsky culture, which existed from the Bronze Age to the Early Iron Age is influenced by the culture of Thracian Hallstatt (Hava-Holihrady), but M. Peleschishin, the researcher of this culture, refutes this view, asserting that Vysotsky culture is not "mixed, hybrid phenomenon emerged at the intersection of several cultures of different origin", but on the contrary, has local roots:

            It was an important ethno-cultural phenomenon of local origin, selectively borrowing some elements of the culture of neighbors (PELESHCHYSHYN MYKOLA, 1998, 30)
            In this case, Vysotska culture was developed on the basis of Komariv group of Trzciniec range of culturs, which creators were ancient Turkic Bulgars, some of which stayed on the Upper Dniester area when moving from the steppes of Ukraine to Central Europe in the middle of the III mill BC. (see section "urks as carriers of the Corded Ware culture in Central -Eastern Europe.”. Stay of Bulgars in these areas is confirmed by preserved till now onomastics (mainly by place names, but partly by anthroponymy), which stands well with the help of the Chuvash language. Hypothetical territory of Bulgarish settlement would have to be in the area south of the ancient Teutons, that is, in the catchment of the upper Dniester, Western Bug, Vereschytsia, Zolota Lypa, Strypa Rivers what is affirmed by a large list of Chuvash-Germanic Language Connections


           At left: The map of sites of Vysotska culture

            The map was made on the basis of Bandrivski's data, who used also information of Ya. Pasternak, L. Krushelnytska, Cinkalowski (BANDRIVSKYI MYKOLA, 1998, Fig. 3, p. 36). Location of several sites on the Bandrivski's map does not correspond an official map, but these errors do not distort the general picture


            Such sites were marked by numbers:
           1. Ternivytsia. 2. Shklo. 3. Veretsiv. 4. Lviv. 5. Cherepyn. 6. Zvenyhorod. 7. Svirzh. 8. Nedilyska. 9. Lahodiv. 10. Lypivtsi. 11. Kotiv. 12 Bozhykiv. 13. Berezhaby. 14. Vitsyn'. 15. Zolochiv. 16. Khilchytsi. 17. Pochapy. 18. Bezdets (Honcharivka). 19. Krasne. 20. Neslukhiv. 21. Rypniv. 22. Byshiv. 23. Stanyn. 24. Romanivka. 25. Perevolochna. 26. Kuty. 27. Chekhy (Luhove). 28. Vysotske. 29. Smilne. 30. Koniushkiv. 31. Brody. 32. Stari Brody. 33. Krutniv. 34. Popivtsi. 35. Markopil. 36. Lukovets. 37. Hlubochok Velyky. 38. Bila. 39. Zaliztsi. 40. Lozy. 41. Musorivtsi. 42. Zbarazh. 43. Kolodno. 44. Ternopil. 45. Birky Velyki. 46. Myshkovychi. 47. Skomorokhy. 48. Loniv. 49. Terebovla. 50. Zelenche. 51. Ostriv. 52. Petrykiv. 53. Uvysla. 54. Rakiv Kut. 55. Holenyshchiv. 56. ZAvadyntsi (?). 57. Kreminna. 58. Volochysl. 59. Ivankivtsi. 60 Bilohirka. 61. Syvky. 62. Sokyryntsi(?). 63. Zhorniv. 64. Derman'. 65. Horodok. 66 Myrohoshcha. 67. Dubyny. 68. Zaborol. 69. Kulykiv. 70 Kremenets. 71. Viknyny Velyki.

            Chornolis (Chernoles in Russian) culture became its name after the locality Chornyi Lis (Black forest) near the village of Boğdanivka at the upper course of the river Inğulets, the right tributary of the Low Dnieper. In the year 1949 here was found a site of ancient fortified settlement (hillfort) as the first evidence about a new unknown culture. Initially, a large number of the sites of the Chornolis culture was found along the right bank of the Dnieper in the basins of the rivers Tiasmyn and Ros’, while during the 60-70s of the last century the question about the Carpathian population at the Scythian time was the least studied archaeologically (ARTAMONOV M.I., 1974: 129).
Later, however, more than 60 settlements were surveyed in the Middle Dniester (KRUSHELNYTS'KA L.I., 1998: 3). In general the Chornolis culture occupies a large portion of Right-Bank Ukraine.

           As we know, at the same time the Ukraine was populated except Bulgaras also by Kurds (see Section "Cimmerians"), what, among other things, is confirmed by place names of Kurdish origin, which main cluster as a whole is to the east of the Bulgarish place names, but sometimes alleged Kurdish and Bulgar settlement arranged alternately. The total area of the concentration of the Bulgar and Kurdish place names responds well to the characteristic form of the spread area of Chornolis culture. (see map 8). However Bulgar toponymy on this area substantially prevails, so there is reason to believe that a major role in the creation of Chornolis culture was played by Bulgars.

At right: The area of the wide-spreading of the Chornolis and Vysotska cultures       <
connecting to Bulgarish and Kurdish place names.       

           On the Left Bank area Bulgar place names are drawn mainly along the Vorskla, Psel, Sula River, as well as sporadically over a large area from Kiev to Kharkov and Kursk.
           The stripe of Chornolis sites on the left bank of the Vorskla River is reflected in by place names quite well. Obviously Chornolis Bulgars, moving out from their original habitat, reached the Dnieper River and crossed to its left bank. Here they entered the territory of Mordovians which came here earlier, and later had to move to the northeast under pressure of newcomers.
           There are shown on the map below main clusters of Bulgar and Kurdish place names, as well as part of names of German origin in the southern parts of Anglo-Saxons and Teutons areas.

           At left: Place names of Bulgarish origin are signed by red color, Kurdish -black, Teutonic – blue, Anglo-Saxonic – violet
           The largest number of Bulgar place nams were found in the Lviv Region and further east to the river Hnyla Lypa, but one of clusters is located on the territory Cherepyn-Lahodiv group of sites that L Krushelnitska relates to early Scythian and M. Bandrivsky to Vysotsky culture. Among all place names of the Bulgarish origin, a clear chain of settlements is allocated at the distance of 10-20 km from each other. It stretches from the town of Sokal in the north of Lviv Region above the town of Radekhiv to the town of Radivilov, then turns east and runs south of the towns of Kremenets, Shumsk, and Izyaslav to Lyubar, then turns to south-east, passes above the town of Chmelnik through the village of Kalinivka, and there not a chain but a real band of names goes to the direction of the Dnieper. There are north of this chain the place names of Bulgar origin too, but they are scattered haphazardly. The band of Kurdish settlements which stretches along the Dniester River eastward may reflect the fact that the Kurds were obviously moved simultaneously with the Bulgars to the Dnieper River, forcing the remnants of the Thracians to the right bank of the Dniester, and then turned to Pontic steppe
           As it is evidenced by the spread of the Bulgar and Kurdish place names, ancient Bulgars and Kurds were living in close proximity, and that was reflected in numerous lexical matches between the Chuvash and Kurdish languages (se Section "Cimmerians"). Obviously Middle Dnister option of Chornolis culture belongs to the Kurds, as dense group of Kurdish toponymy is concentrated just in this place.

           Many archaeologists agree that the Chornolis culture was evolved on the base of Biloğrudiv culture which existed in 12th-11th cent BC. Supposedly it was created by a part of the Thracians, staying in the area near the city of Uman while moving to the Balkans. (See the section "The migration of the Indo-European Peoples at the End of the 2nd and at the Beginning of the 1st Mill BC"). The Biloğrudiv people left peacefully their settlements, having gone across the Dniester and farther, obviously forced out by Cimmerian raids from the steppe and the pressure of the Kurds from the north-west. Their places were taken by the Bulgars, while the Kurds continued their movement along the Dniester River in the steppe, where they met their kinsmen. Larissa Krushelnytska gave a number of data about moving of the Vysotska culture carriers eastward and southeast along the Dnister River. (KRUSHELNYTS'KA L.I., 1998: 185-200). It should be noted that Biloğrudiv settlements were not fortified but newcomers began to build hillforts to insure against the nomads. Usually, the hillforts were placed on the capes of high river banks, formed by two converging ravines. The central fortification, built with logs and surrounded by a ditch, was not large (40 -100 m in diameter) therefore could not place all housing of settlers. The field side of the settlement was protected by three lines of bulwarks, among which was located residential area, outbuildings, etc. However, these fortifications were not sufficiently reliable. Describing the settlements of Chornolis dwellers, A. Terenozhkin pointed:

            Most Chornolis hillforts existed not long, the settlement of Tiasmyn was destroyed by fire. Many homes on the lower layer of the Subbotiv hillfort ceased to exist also by fire (TERENOZHKIN A.I. 1961: 40).

            Obviously, quite a peaceful coexistence between the Bulgars and the Kurds at previous time was broken after the last contacted with other Iranians in the steppes of Right-Bank Ukraine. Retreating from combined forces of the Cimmerians, the Chornolis people moved across the Dniester and partly crossed the Dnieper to the Vorskla River. It is believed by Ukrainian archaeologists, that settling the Vorskla basin by Chornolis tribes began probably still at early level the Chornolis culture in the late Bronze Age (Arkheologiya Ukrainskoy SSR. Tom 2. Pervobytnaya arkheologiya. 1986. K: 40). Archaeologists distinguish Jabotin phase of development of Chornolis culture at its late stage.
           Due to the regular annual researches of the Lviv archaeologists under L.Krushelnitska’s management, numerous settlements and burial grounds of the Late-Bronze and the Early-Iron time were discovered on the Middle and Upper Dniester land and in the Fore-Carpathian. Among them there were such remains which evidently show the gradual transition from the Chornolis to the Scythian culture, e.g. the complex in the village of Neporotovo on the river Dniester in Chernovtsy Region:

            Four settlements (Neporotovo I, II, III, IV), numerous separate relics and the rests of a burial ground were excavated on the area 6000 sq. m. The findings and also the layers of the objects, which overlap each other, have enabled to allocate three chronological horizons: the upper –the Early-Scythian, the transitive – from the For-Scythian to the Scythian, and the lower which is synchronized with the Chornolis culture (KRUSHELNYTS'KA L. 1993-1: 7).

            The sites of the Early-Scythian time are revealed also in the Lviv Region – near to the village of Krushelnytsia in the Skole district and near the town of Dobromil on the river San (KRUSHELNYTS'KA L., 1993-2: 226). However, the Scythian influences reach considerably further:

            The presence of the artifacts of Scythian type in the Central Europe (the authentic and made on Scythian samples) has allowed researchers to draw a conclusion that this territory was under influence of Scythian culture. The largest concentration of finds of the Scythian type is observed in Transylvania and Hungary (POPOVICH I., 1993: 250-251).

            It has been suggested that the Scythians appeared in eastern Hungary in the late 6th cent BC and ruled there for about three centuries before the arrival of the Celts (SHUSHARIN V.P., Ed., 1971: 25). This view is also confirmed by the Hungarian place names (see Section "Proto-Bulgarish Place Names in Central and North Europe". Some of examples of Bulgarish place names in Hungary:
            The village of (v.) Abasár in Heves County – Chuv upa “a bear”, shur "swamp";
            v. Arló in Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén County – Chuv urlav "a cross-piece";
            v. Buj in Szabolcz-Szatmár-Bereg County to the north of Nyíregyháza – Chuv puy “rich”;
            v. Bük in Vas County – Chuv pükh “to swell”;
            the city (c.) Veszprém – Chuv veç “finish”, pĕrĕm “a skein”; cf. Peremarton;
            c. Dunakeszi in Pest County – the first part of the word is the Hungarian name of the Danube, the second part corresponds to the Сhuv kasă "street, village", a very common formative for Chuvash place names;
            t. Zahony in Szabolcz-Szatmár-Bereg County – Chuv çăkhan’ “a raven”;
            v. Inke in Somogy County – Chuv inke “daughter–in-law”;
            v. Komjati in Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén County – Chuv khum “a wave”, yăt “to raise”;
            v. Onga in Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén County to the east of Miskolc – Chuv unkă “a ring”;
            v. Pakod in Zala County – Chuv dial. păl “to fall asleep”, ut “a horse”;
            t. Pásztó in Nógrá County – Chuv pustav “cloth”;
            the settlement of Peremarton to the east of Veszprém – pĕrĕm “a skein”, urtan “to hang down”; cf. Veszprém ;
            v. Sály in Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén County to the south of Miskolc – Chuv sulă “a raft”;
            v. Tarpa in Szabolcz-Szatmár-Bereg County – Chuv tărpa “a chimney”;
            t. Tata in Komarom-Esztergom County – Chuv tută “satisfied”;
            t. Tura in Pest County – Chuv tără 1. “a mountain”, 2. “clear”;
            v. Ják in Vas County – Chuv yăk “misfortune”;
            r. Kálló , the right tribute (rt) of the Berettyó, rt of the Sebes-Körös, rt of the Körös, the left tribute (lt) of the Tisza, lt of the Danube – Chuv khulla “slow”;
            r. Kerka, lt of the Mura, lt of the Drava, rt of the Danube – Chuv kĕrke “a trout’;
            r. Laskó, rt of the Tisza, lt of the Danube – Chuv lashka “to plod”;
            r. Takta, lt of the Sajo, rt of the Tisza, lt of the Danube – Chuv tăl “to pour”, tu “a mountain”;
            r. Zala, flows in Lake Balaton – Chuv çula “to lick”.
            The spread of place names shows that the Scythians occupied almost the entire territory of Hungary, but later were mixed with the newcomers. Bulgarish place names are practically absent in Slovakia, except for a narrow strip of steppe in the south, where a few place names may have Bulgarish origin. As for typical Scythian bronze arrowheads found on many sites of Lusatian settlements (TRET'YAKOV P.N., 1952: 81), they may indicate Scythian raids far up to the territory of modern-day Germany. However the presence of the place names of Bulgarish origin found in Poland suggests the possibility of Bulgarish settling up to the Oder and beyond.
            Ukrainian archaeologists generally agree with the cultural continuity of Pre-Scythian to Scythian time observed in the Ukrainian forest-steppe primarily in the area of the spread of the Chornolis culture and sites of type that replaced it (Arkheologiya Ukrainskoy SSR. Tom 2. Pervobytnaya arkheologiya. 1986: 50). Even supporters of Central Asian origin of the Scythian culture don't in general contradict the continuity of the Scythian culture in the Right-bank Forest-steppe from local ones:

            There is in the Right Bank Forest-steppe to the west of the Dnieper River a high concentration of the sites of pastoral-agricultural population of the Scythian culture, whose roots go deep into the local culture of the Bronze Age (IL'INSKAYA V.A., TIERENOZHKIN A.I. 1983: 11).

            An important is the following observation:

            The Scythian-Siberian ritual of burial in kurgans was spread in the Right-Bank Forest-steppe… This ritual peculiar to the early Scythians was kept with firmness in the Right-bank Forest-steppe until the end of the Scythian period(Ibid: 365).

           At right: A skeleton of a person buried in a grave field of Chornolis culture.
Neporotiv ІІ. Excavetion І. Pit 10, burial #2 (KRUSHELNYTSKA L.I. 1998: Photo 6.)

            However this rite in a crouched position on the side was not "spread", as written cited authors above, but it was long peculiar at Turks at the times of Pit culture, whose descendants were the Scythians-Bulgars.

            Taking into account the chronological framework of the evolution of the Chornolis to the Early-Scythian culture and available place names, we can assume that the core of the Scythian culture started to emerge on the banks of the left tributaries of the Dniester such as Vereschitsa, Ğnyla Lypa, Zolota Lypa, Strypa, Seret. Obviously, the famous Scythian gold was mined in the basin of these rivers, as numerous place names, which may indicate former rich deposits of this metal, are concentrated here (in translation to English – the rivers Gold Lime and Golden, four settlements having the root gold in their names and else four ones having gold as attribute – Golden Stream, Golden Ivan, Golden Bilche, Golden Sloboda). By the way, some treasures were found here, the most famous of which are two treasures of gold objects from the village of Mikhalkiv in Ternopil Region, referred in the chapter “Cimmerians”.
            The impact of culture of Thracian Hallstatt (especially Trans-Carpathian) on the early Scythian culture, which about spoke and continue to speak specialists (ARTAMONOV M.I., 1974: 93, ROMANCHUK ALEXEY. 2004: 383), is easier to explain just by its origin in the upper reaches of the Dniester River.
            V. Ilyinski and A.Terenozhkin as supporters of Central Asian origin of Scythian culture, objected themselves when they said that the earliest relics of the Early-Iron Age on the Left-Bank Ukraine were settlements and burial-places of the second stage of the Chornolis culture. Their uprising was caused due to the migration of the population from the right bank of the Dnieper in the late 9th or the early 8th cent BC, and later the local variation of the Scythian culture was created on this basis. The rest of the territory of Left-Bank Forest-Steppe, according these scholars, was settled later, at the beginning of the first half of the 6th cent BC, and Scythian sites appeared here already in a fully formed shape after the Scythian's come-back from the presumed raids to the Near East (IL'INSKAYA V.A., TIERENOZHKIN A.I. 1983: 366)
            The view that the Scythian culture was brought to the territory of Western Ukraine by aliens from somewhere in the steppes is dominated among the scholars. Even the penetration of these carriers of the Scythian culture to the territory of modern Hungary is supposed(POPOVICH I., 1993: 282.)This view looks strange, if we pay attention to the fact that the latest monument of Scythian culture in the village of Lagodiv (near the city of Lviv) is dated by the 5th cent BC, followed by a chronological gap until the 1st cent BC when the period of the Lipetsk culture began (KRUSHELNYTS'KA L., 1993-2. K: 238). Drawing attention to this, Larysa Krushelnytsky concludes:

            Thus, the chronological gap between the two cultures is equal at least to three centuries. But the question of the duration of cultures and groups of the Early-Scythian time is not clarified not only in the Carpathian region. The same situation can be seen on the countries of the entire Forest-steppe Ukraine, where no invasion of the Scythians but only of their culture was occurred (Ibid).

            It is unclear from this passage who were the bearer of the Scythian culture, but for us it is important that the Scythian culture of later times was not present on these countries but only the Early-Scythian one, what is indirectly confirmed by another expert:

            It is amazing that,.. emerged yet in the late 7th – the beginning of the 6th cent BC communication of the Greeks with Podolia, had no developments, while it have expanded and intensified with the Middle Dnieper country over time. It is very likely that this fact is connected with another one – with a relatively early termination of life on the Podolian settlements and sites of-shelters. Though the same settlement and the sites continued to exist until the disappearance of the Scythians from the Dnieper region” (ARTAMONOV M.I., 1974: 112).

            In light of these facts it appears that the Scythian penetration in the Fore-Carpathians and further to the Transcarpathian began earlier of the flowering of the Scythian culture in the Pontic, which seems illogical.
            Herodotus asserted that the Scythians, arrived from Asia, forced the Cimmerians from the Black Sea and pursued them even to the Caucasus. The area of the Cimmerian culture extended beyond the right bank of the Dnieper to the Danube, so we can doubt that the Scythians, coming from the east, drove the Cimmerians to the Caucasus. If the Cimmerians retreated before the Scythians, they would have to run away somewhere across the Dnieper and the Danube to the Balkans, but did not break through them to Byelorechensk Pass in the Caucasus and farther. A similar doubt has already advanced an opinion M. Artamonov, estimating the choice of the resettlement way to Asia Minor along the eastern shore of the Black Sea as odd, because in addition to the usual difficulties, "it still led in the direction of the enemy, from which the Cimmerians departed" (Ibid: 16). Cimmerian forays into Asia Minor while their logical retreat across the Danube could be occurred solely through the Balkans. However historical data indicate that the majority of the Cimmerians came out of the Caucasus mountain range and only some small part of them together with the Thracians arrived in Asia Minor from the Balkans what has testimony of Strabo. On the other hand, “the appearance of the Scythian monuments in the Northern Caucasus was connected with the time of Fore-Asiatic campaigns, which beginning belongs to the 80-70 years of the 7th cent BC"(MAKHORTYKH S.V., 1991: 11). The analysis of the funeral rites of the Scythian burial-places in the North Caucasus "reveals a genetic affinity with Fore-Scythian and Early-Scythian relics of the Black Sea forest and steppe zones" (Ibid., 112).
            While considering the question of the spread of the Scythian culture from the Western Ukraine it is useful to reflect the thoughts and observations of the biggest experts in the Scythian culture M. Artamonov. In particular, he wrote:

            Noteworthy is the fact of an earlier and more abundant spread of Greek products in the environment of the nomadic Scythians dwelling not close to Olbia but in the remote forest-steppe zone of the modern-day Ukraine settled by Scythian farmers. In this connection we should also note another fact, namely, that rich burial-places under kurgans, specially erected for them, appeared at these Scythians before the nomads (ARTAMONOV M.I., 1974: 83).

            He explained these facts as if the Greeks had more profit trading with the rich farmers than whit the poor nomads. But how to explain, that the richest Scythian burial kurgans were found just in the steppes, but not in the Forest-steppe. Nomadic economy has not changed but why nomads become suddenly rich. In fact, the ranchers were not poorer of the farmers, and perhaps were even richer than they. It is therefore logical to assume that the spread of the Scythians to the Pontic steppe occurred from the Forest-steppe of the Right-bank Ukraine. The same can be said about the Scythian settlement of the Dnieper left bank. M. Artamonov said rightly – first the Scythians master the basin of the Vorskla but "the Sula and the Seversky Donets rivers were inhabited by the Scythians later than the Vorskla… The settling of the Middle Don region by the Scythians belonged to the more recent period – the turn of the 6th-5th cent. BC” (Ibid: 92). While establishing these facts, it seems simply absurd that the Scythians, coming from the east passed along the Don and Pontic steppes and departed straight into the Forest-steppe of the Right-bank Ukraine, and after some time returned to the places that they might settle before.
            Thus we conclude that the Chornolis culture, created by the Bulgar on the Biloğrudiv basis and having two stages of development: early (about 1050 – 900 years. BC) and late one (900 – 725 years. BC), gradually evolved into the Early-Scythian culture. This process is confirmed by the sites of Zhabotyn type. Having settled on the Left Bank and in the Black Sea steppes, the Bulgars came into conflict with the Cimmerians lived there, drove them beyond the Caucasus, and themselves became known in history under the name of the Scythians, developing on new settlement areas a new stage of their culture.

            Can not be overlooked that the Scythian cultural heritage has to be in some extent preserved in the cultures of the late population of NPR and the North Caucasus, that is, in the folk culture of Ukrainians, dwelling on the former Scythian territory, and Ossetians ehich are considered direct descendants of the Scythians. Scythian cultural influences through the mediation of the Bulgars can be found when comparing the Chuvash and Ukrainian folk cultures in embroidery, music, and so forth. Some Chuvash-Ukrainian cultural matches are shown in the section "Cultural substrate". Something common in traditional cultures of Ossetians and Ukrainians is absentwhat would be expected if the Ossetians were the descendants of the Scythians. If embroidery art is spread very widely at Chivash and Ukrainians, it has not important place in the folk art of Ossetians, behind stone and wood carving, metal minting. Moreover, completely different simbols typical for pastoral peoples are dominated among elements of Ossetian folk art.

            At left: Comparison of the Scythian, Ukrainian, Chuvash and Ossetian traditional folk famale costumes

            1. Dress of Scythian girl from IV cent. BC reconstructed by the thing material from excavation of grave Vyshneva Mohyla near the village of Gyunivka in Zaporozhye Region. Reconstruction of Ya. Prilipko and Yu. Boltik.(BILAN M.S., STELMASHCHUK G.G. 2011: 19).
2. Ukrainian girl from Podolia in folk costume. Watercolor of Yu. Głogowski. 1834(KRVAVYCH D.P., STELMASHCHUK G.G. 1988: 250)
3. Chuvash girl in national costume. Photo from the site CHUVASH SUIT FROM ANCIENT TO MODERN TIMES
4.Ossetian girl in a wedding dress. Photos from the site "Ossetian wedding and bride's attire".
More on the site "Comparing Folk Dress of Some East European People"



            Chuvash-Ukrainian cultural connections are considered in the section "Cultural Substratum".



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