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Etymological Table Database.

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The Urheimat of the Nostratic Languages

The Relationship of the Altaic and Turkic languages. Origin and development.


Finno-Ugric Place Names in the Central Russia

            It is a vast and interesting topic, worthy of special study, so in this paper we do not attempt to take for the consideration all the Finno-Ugric place names as such, but only that their portion which can be attributed to the time of residence of the speakers of individual languages on their Urheimat or near it that is before resettling of the Finno-Ugric large expanses of North-Eastern Europe. Thus, it will be presented here the toponymy of ehno-forming areas which can be explained by means exactly those languages, which original dialect was formed in each of them.
            The area of the Veps language is placed between the rivers Oka, Moscow, Ugra, Viaz’ma, and Vazuza. The last two river names can be explained by the means of Veps language:
            - the river (r.) Viaz’ma, the left tributary (lt)of the Dnieper and the town of (t.) Viaz’ma – Veps vez’i “water” and ma “country” or the name Viaz’ma can hide the ethnonym of the Vepses (in Russian – Ves’) – the country of Vepses ;
            - r. Vazuza, the right tributary (rt) of the Volga – Veps vez’i “water” and uz “new”.
            The area of the Estonian language is located between the rivers Volga, Klaz’ma that is the right tributary of the Oka, the left tributary of the Volga, and the river Moscow, the right tributary of the Oka. There is on the north of the area the town of Taldom. Its name can be explained as “the house made of oak” – Est talo “house” and tamm “oak”. The other place names can be explicated so:
            - r. Dubna, rt of the Volga – Est. tõbine “swanp”;
            - r. Lama, lt of the Shosha, rt of the Volga – Est lame “flat” suits for the local flat country perfectly;
            - r. Sestra, lt of the Dubna, rt of the Volga – Est sõstar “currants”;
            - r. Kimera (the ancient name) and the town of Kimry on bank of this river in Tver Region – Est kime “sharp” and raev “rage”;
            - r. Yakhroma, rt of the Sestra, lt of the Dubna, rt of the Volga, and the town of Yakhroma – Est jõke “river” and *roma “bad, not beautiful” (Fin ruma).
            The are in the area of the Lappish language between the Volga and the low Klaz’ma many enigmatic place names. Such of them can have the Lappish origin:
            - r. Klaz’ma, lt of the Oka, rt of the Volga – Lapp kālles’ “a husband”;
            - r Landekh, lt of the Lukh, rt of the Klaz’ma – Lapp lannt “a poul, slop” (the river flows on the swampy country);
            - r. Lukh, rtof Klaz'ma – Lapp lukht “a bay, cove”;
            - r. Uleyma, the right tributary of the Volga, higher of the town of the Rybinsk – Lapp vell’m “strait, channel”;
            - r. Yukht’, the right tributary of the Uleyma – Lapp yokka “a river”.
            The area of the Mordvinic language is located between the upper current of the rivers Oka and Don. The stay of the Mordvinic ancestors here can be affirmed by the name the little river Mordves, the left tributary of the Osetr, the right tributary of the Oka. The town of Mordves is located on this river too. The ethnonyms of the Mordvins and Vepses can be hidden in this name. There is in the center of the area the city of Tula which name can be explained as “a wedge” (Mord tula “a wedge”). This hypothesis has to be real, as the town of Klin (Russian klin “a wedge’) is located on the North of Moscow Region. The second part of name of the river Krasivaya Mecha can be explained as shallow (Mord mac’a “shallow”). The first word is Russian (beautiful).
            The area of the Finnish language is limited by the river Klaz’ma on the north and the river Oka on the south. Such facts can prove the location here of the Finnish Urheimat:
            – the settlement Cherusti in Shatura District – syrjä “border”, hytti “cabin”;
            - r. Oka can have the same origin as Fin joki “a river”;
            - t. of Likino-Dulevo is located on the swampy flat country and the both words can reflect the peculiarity of the local landscape: Fin lika “mud” (Mari lükö „quagmire“) and Fin tulva „flood, owerflow“;
            - r. Suvoroshch, the right tributary of the Klaz’ma flows on the swampy country, therefore its name can be composed by Fin suo “swamp” and roska(t) “rubbish, litter”;
            - the village (v.) Kochemary in Kasimov District of Riazan’ Region is good explained by Fin marja “a berry” and kataja “juniper” (cf. Mari kocho “bitter”);
            - the settling Tuma in Klepiki District of Riazan’ Region can have the same origin as Fin tumma “oak”;
            - t. Shatura – Fin hattara “cloud”.
            The whole area of the Komi language is located in Nizhniy Novgorod Region rightwards of the current of the low Oka and the middle Volga. The Mordvinic place names are predominant here as the Mordvinic tribes of Erzia migrated to this country after the Komis went to the left bank of the Volga. Nevertheless some place names can have the Komi origin:
            - Lake Vad and the village Vad – Komi vad “a lake”:
            - Island Barminskiy on the Volga and the town of Barmino – Komi parma “fir forest”;
            - the river Sura, the right tributary of the Volga – Komi shor “a stream” (Udm shur “a river”);
            - the river Tiosha, the right tributary of the Oka – Komi töshchö “hollow”
            - the river Seriozha, the right tributary of the Tiosha – Komi ser “pattern” and ezha “sod, turf”;
            - the village of Tamboles in the Vyksun District – Komi tom “young” and pelys’ “mountain ash”.
            The most part of the area of the Khanty language belongs to the modern-day Mordvinic republic. It is clear that the Mordvinic place names are predominant on this area. However the ancestors of the Khanties left here their tracks. There are in Sosnovoborsk District of Penza Region two villages of the same name Russian Kachim and Mordvinic Kachim. The Khanty word kachəm “the water of snow” suits good for the name of this river, as it is filled by melted snow in spring. The name of the river Sviyaga can be explained as “clayey river” – Khanty sāwi “clay” and joğən “river” (from common Finno-Ugric *jaka/jaga), as the river-bed of the Sviyaga lies in the clayey bedrock. The name of the river Sarka, the left tributary of the Sura, the right tributary of the Volga can mean “swift” because of Khanty sarəğ “quickly” and sarqa “not for a long time”. If maples grow near the village of Lun’ka of the Ardatov Districr, then Khanty luŋk suits to the name of the village good. The name of the village of Vertelim of Staroshaygov District can hide such Khanty word: wərte “red” and ilim “shame”.
            The area of the Mari language is located on the left banks of the Don till the river Khoper, the left tributary of the Don. The most convincing evidence of the present near this country of the ancestors of the Maris is the name of the river Iznair, the left tributary of the Khoper: Mar izi “little” and eŋer “river”. The name of the river Matyra, the left tributary of the Voronezh, the left tributary of the Don can mean “beautiful”, as Mari motor means the same. There is on the north of the area the city of Tambov. Its name can be explained by Mari words tum “oak” and pu “a tree” (Fin puu “a tree”). One can consider also such correspondences:
            - the river Ertil, the left tributary of the Bitiug, the left tributary of the Don and the town of Ertil, the center of the District in Voronezh Region – Mari er “morning” and tele, tel “winter”:
            - the river Chigla, the left tributary of the Bitiug – Mari chigila “sticky”;
            - the river Savala, the right tributary of the Khoper, the left tributary of the Don – Mari savala “a spoon”.
            The area of the Udmurt language is placed between the rivers Tsna, Moksha, and Khoper. Now the Modvin place names are predominant in this country, but some deal of the names can be explained by means of the Udmurt language. The name of Region center the city of Penza maybe means “the ashes of grass”: Udm pen’ “ashes” and “zu” (from early za) “stalk”. Such explanation can be real, as there is in the Bekovo District of Penza Region the village Poim which name corresponds to Komi pöim “ashes”. A similar word could be in the Udmurt language. The name of the center of the district in Penza Region Pachelma can hide three Udmurtian words: puchy “willow”, ul “moist”, and mu (from early ma) “erth”. The other correspondences are such:
            the villages Papuzy and Papuz-Gora in Bazarnosyzgan District of Penza Region – Udm. papa “a bird” and puz “a nest”.
            The area of the Hungarian language is located between the rivers Khoper and Medeveditsa. Such correspondences are found here:
            - the river Archeda, the left tributary of the Medveditsa, the left tributary of the Don which has the sinuous river-bed – Hung ár “a current, stream” and sodor “to turn, twirl”;
            - the river Mashka, the left tributary of the Chir, the right tributary of the Don, the rived-bed of which lies in limestone – Hung mészkő “limestone”;
            - the lake Bolshie (Great) Chiganaki between the mouths of the Khoper and the Medveditsa – Hung csiga “snail” and nagy “great”;
            - Lake Ilmen’ in Rudnia District of Volgograd Region – Hung élmény “pleasure”;
            - the river Tokay, the right tributary of the Yelan’, the right tributary of the Savala, the right tributary of the Khoper – the Hungarian town of Tokay;
            - two rivers Yelan’, the one is the basin oh the Khoper, another is the tributary of the Tersa, the right tributary of the Medveditsa – Hung leany, lany “a girl” and “good”;
            - the town of Balashov in Saratov Region – Hung bálás “a bundle”, öv „a belt“.
            The enigmatic name of the river Khoper can be composed of two Hungarian words “warm” and bőr “skin” or bor “wine”. One have to note that some place names explained by means of the Hungarian language go out the boundary of the area. This fact cane evidence that great deal of Hungarian ancestors stayed near the Urheimat widening their territory.



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